On First Words

Richard Pevear has a foreword to his collaborative (with Larissa Volokhonsky) translation of Dostoevsky’s Notes from Underground in which he offers some rationale for using the word “wicked” to translate the Russian злой (zloi) in the first line: the book is not about psychology, as is sometimes thought, he claims; it’s about morality, and to convey this idea “wicked” is better than the other words that translators have used such as “nasty,” “mean,” and, especially, “spiteful.” It’s a smart interpretation, clearly available among the many possible approaches to the book, and one I have pointed out whenever I’ve taught the book to students. It’s also one of the very first choices a translator is faced with, as the first line announces.

Я человек больной… Я злой человек.

It’s a nasty opening, with an inversion of the adjective and noun in the first sentence, an ellipsis that has been the subject of plenty of interpretive debate, the use of the standard Russian word for “person,” which has almost invariably been translated as “man,” and then the wonderfully wicked “zloi,” which could in fact mean wicked or evil, but might also be interpreted in other ways, particularly as it gets elaborated later in the opening passage through the phrase со злости (so zlosti), which has most often been translated as “from/out of spite” (as in “I did X from spite”) and which is pushed a bit willfully, it seems to me, when rendered as “from/out of wickedness” or “from/out of evil.” For this reason, I believe “spite” is the better choice for the phrase со злости, but I still like “wicked” or perhaps even more “evil” for злой on its own. There’s no reason these have to be mutually exclusive. I will certainly return to this in a subsequent post.

As the opening is a monologue, I have found the most convincing interpretations of the passage among those who see it, or rather hear it, as a performance of sorts, akin in some measure to the performance of Nabokov’s Humbert Humbert, with similar shifts of tone, register, and point of view. This is a narrator who is practically dancing around the page, his face contorting, nose crinkling, eyes filling with tears and then, in quick magical turns, beaming with apparent joy or twisted with irony and derision. It could be set up effectively as a dialog or a multi-voiced drama, and I have seen good adaptations do precisely this.

There’s much more to note in this first paragraph, but I admit to being a bit anxious to show my first try:

I am a sick man…. I’m an evil man. I am not an attractive person. I believe my liver is ailing me. Of course I don’t give a damn about this illness of mine and don’t know for sure what’s wrong. I don’t go for treatment and never have, though I respect doctors and respect medicine. I’m also extremely superstitious, or at least enough to respect medicine. (I’m educated enough not to be superstitious, but I am superstitious.) No sir, it’s out of spite that I won’t go for treatment. Probably you won’t understand that. But I do. It goes without saying that I won’t be able to explain to you exactly who it is I am spiting through this spite of mine. I know very well that I can’t “get back at” the doctors by not going for treatment, and I know better than anyone I’m only hurting myself with all this, no one else. Still, if I’m not going for treatment, it’s from spite. My liver hurts. Well, let it hurt even worse!

I’m reading this aloud dozens of times as I work on it, shifting and playing with the tone and emphases each time. It can be read in many ways, and that opening ellipsis, as I recall reading somewhere, seems best as something of a trial, announcing something to see what the response might be, looking around at an audience that is actually only imagined. A performance for oneself. (Think Taxi Driver.)

These are actually not the first lines of the book, however. Those are in a footnote from the author, or at least signed by “Fyodor Dostoevsky.” The tone there makes it clear that the tone here is different, but that topic I will save for post number two in this new category of this now old, or at least oldish, blog: “Notes on Translating Notes (from Underground).”

Feel free to drop me a line if you have comments.

The Book Tour

After you’ve written it and it’s been published, you’re not going to make big changes anymore. You can’t stop the presses. They’ve already stopped. A second printing might happen, but it’s far away and really a long shot for a pointy headed book like yours. There are people who will be interested and they will find it. There won’t be a rush on the book stores like when Oprah recommends something. We used to joke in grad school when we had to admit that we hadn’t yet read the latest super-specialized title to come out on, say, Indo-European ablaut. We’d say, “I’m waiting for the movie.” Well, like those thick tomes, your rather thin one won’t ever be a movie, unless it’s something highly experimental (the movie, I mean).

All this means that when you’re giving a talk at this point in the process, it’s very different from when you were giving the many talks you gave while writing the book. Then you were putting things out there, trying them on like a suit off the rack. You might put it back. And you were also asking people to respond, to help, give you their thoughts on what it was you were doing, or what you thought you were doing, because sometimes it’s hard to know exactly until you’ve got an audience to try it on in front of. I absolutely loved that part. Oh, you think you know all sorts of things–oh, stop it with the second person, will you?–fine, I thought I knew all sorts of things, and I probably did know them because I’d been working hard on it and others hadn’t, not on that. But I knew I didn’t know everything, and there was always some idea, some source I might not have yet touched on or remembered or even heard of. I was ready to hear about it and revise my work to include it, well, up to a point. It’s not called confidence for nothing.

Now it’s a very different thing. I’m not asking anyone to help. If I’m interested in what they have to say, it’s more out of habit and maybe generosity than solidarity in the project. The project is done, unless I’ve got a part two all lined up, in which case more power to me. I don’t, so less power to me. It took me over a decade to write this book. I’m not thinking of any part two at this point, though I suppose an addendum here and there wouldn’t be out of the question, especially if Oprah demands it. In any case, all this makes the presentations I’ll be doing from now on about this project more performative than scholarly in the strong sense of that word. I’ll be doing a shtick, or rather having one, which is probably the idiom. I don’t think I’ve ever had a shtick before, so it will be something new and I hope it doesn’t get old too fast.

You can catch me in St. Louis on November 7!